How to Make a Windmill of One or Two Horsepower for Practical Purposes

A windmill for developing from 1/2 to 2 hp. may be constructed at home, the expense being very small and the results highly satisfactory.
The hub for the revolving fan wheel is first constructed.
One good way to get both the hub, lining, shaft and spokes for the blades, is to go to a wheelwright’s and purchase the wheel and axle of some old rig. There are always a number of discarded carriages, wagons or parts thereof in the rear of the average blacksmith’s shop. Sometimes for half a dollar, and often for nothing, you can get a wheel, an axle, and connected parts.
Remove from the wheel, all but the four spokes needed for the fans as in Fig. 1. The same hub, axle and bearings will do. In case you cannot secure a wheel and shaft, the hub may be made from a piece of hardwood, about 4 in. in diameter and 6 in. long. A 2-in. hole should be bored through for a wooden shaft, or a 1-1/2-in. hole for a metal shaft.

Fig.1; Windmill
The hub may be secured by putting two or three metal pins through hub and shaft.
Adjust the spokes by boring holes for them and arrange them so that they extend from the center A, like B. The wheel is then ready for the blades. These blades should be of sheet metal or thin hardwood. The sizes may vary according to the capacity of the wheel and amount of room for the blades on the spokes. Each one is tilted so as to receive the force of the wind at an angle, which adjustment causes the wheel to revolve when the wind pressure is strong enough. Secure the blades to the spokes by using little metal cleats, C and D. Bend these metal strips to suit the form of the spokes and flatten against the blades and then insert the screws to fasten the cleats to the wood. If sheet metal blades are used, rivets should be used for fastening them.

Fig. 2, Fig. 3

The stand for the wheel shaft is shown in Fig. 2. Arrange the base piece in platform order, (J). This is more fully shown in Fig. 5. On top of this base piece, which is about 36 in. long, place the seat or ring for the revolving table. The circular seat is indicated at I, Fig. 1. This ring is like an inverted cheese box cover with the center cut out. It can be made by a tinner. Size of ring outside, 35 in. The shoulders are 4 in. high and made of tin also. Form the shoulder by soldering the piece on. Thus we get a smooth surface with sides for the mill base to turn in so as to receive the wind at each point to advantage. The X-shaped piece H rests in the tin rim. The X-form, however, does not show in this sketch, but in Fig. 5, where it is marked S. This part is made of two pieces of 2-in. plank, about 3 in. wide, arranged so that the two pieces cross to make a letter X.

Fig. 4

When the pieces join, mortise them one into the other so as to secure a good joint. Adjust the uprights for sustaining the wheel shaft to the X-pieces as shown at E, E, Fig. 2. These are 4 by 4 in. pieces of wood, hard pine preferred, planed and securely set up in the X-pieces by mortising into the same. Make the bearings for the wheel shaft in the uprights and insert the shaft.

Fig. 5

The gearing for the transmission of the power from the wheel shaft to the shaft calculated for the delivery of the power at an accessible point below must next be adjusted. The windmill is intended for installation on top of a building, and the power may be transmitted below, or to the top of a stand specially erected for the purpose. It is a good plan to visit some of the second-hand machinery dealers and get four gears, a pulley and a shaft. Gears about 5 in. in diameter and beveled will be required. Adjust the first pair of the beveled gears as at F and G. If the wheel shaft is metal, the gear may be set-screwed to the shaft, or keyed to it. If the shaft is hardwood, it will be necessary to arrange for a special connection. The shaft may be wrapped with sheet metal and this metal fastened on with screws. Then the gear may be attached by passing a pin through the set-screw hole and through the shaft. The upright shaft like the wheel shaft is best when of metal. This shaft is shown extending from the gear, G, to a point below. The object is to have the shaft reach to the point where the power is received for the service below. The shaft is shown cut off at K. Passing to Fig. 3 the shaft is again taken up at L. It now passes through the arrangement shown, which device is rigged up to hold the shaft and delivery wheel P in place. This shaft should also be metal. Secure the beveled gears M and N as shown. These transmit the power from the upright shaft to the lower horizontal shaft. Provide the wheel or pulley, P, with the necessary belt to carry the power from this shaft to the point of use.

The tail board of the windmill is illustrated in Fig. 4. A good way to make this board is to use a section of thin lumber and attach it to the rear upright, E of Fig. 2. This may be done by boring a hole in the upright and inserting the shaft of the tail-piece. In Fig. 4 is also shown the process of fastening a gear, R, to the shaft. The set screws enter the hub from the two sides and the points are pressed upon the shaft, thus holding the gear firmly in place.

Fig. 6

The platform for the entire wheel device is shown in Fig. 5. The X-piece S is bored through in the middle and the upright shaft passes through. The tin run-way or ring is marked T, and the X-piece very readily revolves in this ring, whenever the wind alters and causes the wheel’s position to change. The ring and ring base are secured to the platform, U. The latter is made of boards nailed to the timbers of the staging for supporting the mill. This staging is shown in Fig. 6, in a sectional view. The ring with its X-piece is marked V, the X-piece is marked W, and the base for the part, and the top of the stage is marked X. The stage is made of 2 by 4-in. stock. The height may vary, according to the requirements. If the affair is set up on a barn or shed, the staging will be sufficient to support the device. But if the stage is constructed direct from the ground, it will be necessary to use some long timbers to get the wheel up high enough to receive the benefit of the force of the wind. Proceeding on the plan of the derrick stand, as shown in Fig. 6, a stage of considerable height can be obtained.

Excerpt from the book:
THE BOY MECHANIC
VOLUME I
700 THINGS FOR BOYS TO DO
WITH 800 ILLUSTRATIONS
1913, BY H. H. WINDSOR CHICAGO
POPULAR MECHANICS CO. PUBLISHERS